This piece was written for string quartet in 2001 and arranged for string orchestra in 2003.
Leyendas: An Andean Walkabout draws inspiration from the idea of mestizaje as envisioned by Peruvian writer José María Arguedas, where cultures can coexist without the subjugation of one by the other. As such, this piece mixes elements from the western classical and Andean folk music traditions.
Toyos depicts one of the most recognizable instruments of the Andes, the panpipe. One of the largest kinds is the breathy toyo which requires great stamina and lung power and is often played in parallel fourths or fifths.
Tarqueda is a forceful and fast number featuring the tarka, a heavy wooden duct flute that is blown harshly in order to split the tone. Tarka ensembles typically also play in fourths and fifths.
Himno de Zampoñas features a particular type of panpipe ensemble that divides up melodies through a technique known as hocketing. The characteristic sound of the zampoña panpipe is that of a fundamental tone blown flatly so that overtones ring out on top, hence the unusual scoring of double stops in this movement.
Chasqui depicts a legendary figure from the Inca period, the chasqui runner, who sprinted great distances to deliver messages between towns separated from one another by the Andean peaks. The chasqui needed to travel light. Hence, I take artistic license to imagine his choice of instruments to be the charango, a high-pitched cousin of the guitar, and the lightweight bamboo quena flute, both of which are featured in this movement.
Canto de Velorio portrays another well-known Andean personality, a professional crying woman known as the llorona. Hired to render funeral rituals even sadder, the llorona is accompanied here by a second llorona and an additional chorus of mourning women (coro de mujeres). The chant Dies Irae is quoted as a reflection of the comfortable mix of Quechua Indian religious rites with those from Catholicism.
Coqueteos is a flirtatious love song sung by gallant men known as romanceros. As such, it is direct in its harmonic expression; bold and festive. The romanceros sing in harmony with one another against a backdrop of guitars which I think of as a vendaval de guitarras (“storm of guitars”).
Gabriela Lena Frank ©2020
About This Program
Explore the interwoven musical traditions of Spain and Latin America in this program curated by SPCO musicians Maureen Nelson and Richard Belcher. The program opens with the only symphony by the legendary “Spanish Mozart,” Juan Crisotómo Arriaga, followed by Andean-inspired music for string orchestra by Gabriela Lena Frank, a wind quintet by Maurice Ravel inspired by Havana, and Renaissance works quoting a Quechua (South American Indigenous) melody arranged by SPCO violinist Maureen Nelson.
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