Mendelssohn’s Italian Symphony


Antonín Dvořák

Romance in F Minor for Violin and Orchestra

Maureen Nelson, violin
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William Walton

Sonata for String Orchestra

Sonata for String Orchestra (1946, rev. 1971) SIR WILLIAM WALTON TRANS. WALTON AND M. ARNOLD

It’s been supposed that Sir William Walton’s legacy suffers from his being “Sir William Walton”—that is, that the stodgy sound of his name and knighthood creates false preconceptions about the character of his music. Born in Oldham in 1902, Walton absorbed a wide array of musical innovations throughout his formative artistic years. Although his foundation was decidedly English, springing primarily from his boyhood years as a chorister at Christ Church Cathedral, he was equally fascinated by a wide array of composers and musical styles. The range of his tastes, the composer Bruce Adolphe surmises, creates in Walton’s own music “the sense that George Gershwin and Harold Arlen meet Arnold Schoenberg and Elgar and Brahms and Strauss and they’re all having a big party.”

Despite such eclecticism, Walton’s music is both streamlined in its conception and uniquely his own. Such is evident in his Sonata for String Orchestra (originally String Quartet No. 2 in A Minor). When Sir Neville Marriner requested a work for string orchestra for the Academy of St. Martin-in-the-Fields, Walton obliged, not with a new composition, but with this transcription of his earlier quartet, composed between 1945 and 1946. (The 70-year-old composer enlisted his friend and colleague Malcolm Arnold to assist; Arnold completed the transcription of the last movement, under Walton’s supervision.) The first movement of the orchestral version deviates from the Quartet somewhat; the remaining three, though virtually note-for-note transcriptions, are nevertheless freshly reimagined by means of ensemble texture, at times utilizing the principal strings to achieve a sense of intimacy (prompting English composer Christopher Palmer to suggest relabeling the work “Concerto for String Quartet and String Orchestra”).

Witness the beginning of the Allegro first movement, a ruminative dialogue between solo strings, before its expansion to the full ensemble amplifies the conversation. So too is Walton’s assimilation of a broad range of styles on display here. Might the sharp-tongued second theme vaguely suggest a Bartók folk dance, displaced from the Rumanian countryside to rural England? This tune becomes the subject of a brief fugato passage in the movement’s central development section. When the first theme returns, it does so fueled by an injection of the fugato’s rhythmic verve.

The restless energy of the Allegro’s second theme extends into the following movement, a bracing, biting Presto. The Lento third movement’s heartfelt melodic character and pseudo-jazzy chords evoke Gershwin and Arlen, but strained through the modernism of Stravinsky, et al. The Sonata for Strings concludes with an exuberant rondo.


William Walton ©1946

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Felix Mendelssohn

Symphony No. 4, Italian

Felix Mendelssohn was one of music’s most precocious prodigies, creating mature compositions while just a teenager. Still, at age 20, he did what most young men from wealthy families did at the time: He embarked on a “grand tour.” With extended visits to the British Isles and Italy, Mendelssohn expanded his worldview and brought home inspiration for future projects. Scotland would be memorialized in the Scottish Symphony and the Hebrides Overture, while Italy sparked an Italian Symphony. True to their origins, Mendelssohn’s Scottish works are misty and stormy, while the southern climate of Italy produced, in Mendelssohn’s words, “the jolliest piece I have ever done.”

Mendelssohn sketched part of the Italian Symphony while in Italy in 1830–31, and completed the work in 1833. He used the piece to fulfill a prestigious commission from the Philharmonic Society of London, the same group that had commissioned Beethoven’s Ninth Symphony. The Italian Symphony (the nickname came from the composer) debuted in London in May of 1834. Besides the clear, sunny nature of the work, especially in its ebullient first movement, Mendelssohn confirmed the Italian origins with specific folk references. He dubbed the finale a saltarello — a leaping Italian folk dance — and he also incorporated elements of a tarantella, a devilishly fast dance from southern Italy to be undertaken (so the story goes) after a bite from a tarantula, until the dancer is cured or dies.

Later in 1834, Mendelssohn made substantial revisions to the symphony’s final three movements. He intended to revise the first movement, too, but postponed that task. Eventually, he judged that too much time had passed for him to rework the first movement in a style consistent with the rest of the piece, so he suppressed the symphony altogether. The work was published posthumously as the Symphony No. 4, although it actually came after the First and Fifth symphonies and was followed by the Second and Third. To further complicate the matter, the publisher worked from the original London score instead of Mendelssohn’s revised version, which itself existed in various iterations. A scholarly edition based on Mendelssohn’s revisions finally came out in 1999, but it is quite a different work than the one the public knows. Clearly, Mendelssohn’s final intentions have been misrepresented over the years, but millions of fans who love the original Italian Symphony likely would not want a single note changed. This raises an age-old question: Is the composer the ultimate arbiter of his own music? In the case of a genius such as Mendelssohn, we can probably agree that any version of his work is a treasure to have in our repertoire.

Aaron Grad ©2009

About This Program

New SPCO violinist Maureen Nelson opens the program with Dvořák’s Romance in F Minor for Violin and Orchestra. Next is William Walton’s Sonata for String Orchestra, a transcription of his String Quartet in A Minor that the 20th century English composer completed with his colleague Malcom Arnold. The concert closes with Mendelssohn’s beloved Italian symphony.


The winners of the 2017 SPCO Youth Chamber Music Competition, the Donovan Quintet, will perform in the Target Atrium of the Ordway Center during Fanfare preceding the Friday, April 28 performance of Mendelssohn’s Italian Symphony. The members of the quartet are Nadine Manske (violin), Cate Carson (violin), Edwin Patrick Thatcher Donovan (viola), Christopher Kwon (cello), and Nicholas Scheel (cello). They will be performing the third movement of Schubert’s String Quintet in C Major, D.956.

The annual competition is sponsored and coordinated by the Friends of the Saint Paul Chamber Orchestra, the volunteer organization that supports The SPCO through educational, social and fundraising activities. Partnering with them are MNSOTA (Minnesota String and Orchestra Teachers Association), and MacPhail Center for Music. To learn more about the competition and to hear the rest of this year's winners, visit